* Check arrow after the jump ball.
* College Officials: Check the shot clock and game clock on every whistle and each trip down floor. Awareness of the amount of time left on game clock and 35 second clock is a necessity. You are primarily responsible for these. You must make yourself conscious of both clocks at all times.
* Cover perimeter rebound responsibility, assist on strong side rebounding and all over the back calls. Referee when necessary to the lane line and assist “C” with weak-side rebounding.
* Do not bail out when shots are taken. Take a step toward the end line to improve rebounding angles and to also observe goaltending. Wait until you have a new possession.
* Trail the ball by 2 to 3 strides and to one side while in transition from Lead to Trail. This will enable you to read the passing lanes and anticipate defensive pressure and double teams. Stay to the left or right of the ball, away from “C”. Do not over run the ball. Always be able to see the on-ball defender and the court in front of you. Lead to trail official is responsible for the ball until it reaches the front court. Be aware of palming and discontinued dribbles.
* Responsible for the 10-second count, the visible count motion will be changed from one arm to the other when there is a pass from back court to a player closely guarded in the front court.
* On multiple free throws, the trail should start at mid-court on the free throws that will not remain in play if players are back, if not move up. On the free throw that is to remain in play, the trail should move up to the 28′ line.
* Assist in making sure the correct shooter attempts the free throws and that they are taken in the correct order if there are multiple free throws for multiple fouls. Communicate with the lead on all free throws concerning the number of free throws to be administered.
* Constantly work to avoid being in a straight-line situation, move to maintain an angle to referee the defender. Distance is a factor in being able to see the whole play. Referee to the right or left of the dribbler when a shot may be taken on the perimeter.
* Basketball officiating is a game of angles that provide the best possible lanes of vision to officiate through your primary into your secondary.
* Move onto the floor in the front court to get good looks on plays going in to the key area, pick and roll plays and other individual offensive maneuvers and plays.
* Responsible for basket interference and goaltending. Especially true if the shot is taken in front of the center.
* Anticipate when a player is preparing to attempt a field goal. Acquire a position to referee the defense and determine if a 3-point field goal is attempted. Referee the shooter back to the floor.
* Observe the table, substitutions and handle questions concerning the table situations. Know whether the arrow is correct.
* Must assist and be in the “help” mode to assist with travel and 3 second calls in front of the lead. Do not be afraid to go in front of the lead official for a violation.
* Responsible for balls over the backboard.
* Be aware of substitutions at the table.
* Dual and primary responsibility with lead and center on 3-point shots.
* The trail is the “safety valve” for free throw violations, especially when a player violates from outside the 3-point circle.
* When administering a throw-in, sweep the floor to check benches, table, and number of players, your partners and both clocks. Count players after all time outs and when more than one substitute enters the game.
* Referee where the lead cannot and does not. Example: travel violations on post-up play (pump fake).
* Be aware of illegal screens, illegal contact on screen and roll plays, hand checking both on and off the ball.
* Make sure you give up the ball when it leaves your primary and you should go to the “competitive match-up” in your primary that can hurt the game.
* Assist the lead and center when the ball is in the lane to referee the play. Step off the sideline and slide toward the baseline as far as necessary to referee these plays.
* Understand the principle of Action/Reaction on double whistles. Use your eyes and body language to communicate with your partner before you signal on a double whistle.
* (College Only) When the 35-second shot clock is about to expire, hold your position, as the offense will aggressively look for a shot. On shot clock plays inside of 5 seconds and on shot clock violations, if you are table side you have priority coverage and responsibility.
* Be ready to assist on “score-no-score” at the end of period.
* When in rotation from trail to center make sure you pick up the “competitive matchup” that can hurt the game the most. Give up the ball and go off ball.
* When going from trail to lead run hard to the baseline (toward where the three point line intersects the baseline) and get in position to “accept” the play rather than being accepted by the play. Anticipate the play not the call. Make certain you turn head “to the ball” when in transition from “T’ to “L”. On quick turnovers, move to sideline and follow play to the basket.
* Refereeing from the “outside-in” allows the trail official to see as near to 10 players as possible, while referring on the ball. The trail should dictate the angle he referees and not let the players dictate that angle. Always strive to see as much of the court as possible.
* The nearest sideline and the mid-court are your primary boundary responsibilities.
* Must signal all successful 3-point goals. If the shooter’s foot is on the arc, signal two points with the arm about shoulder high. -
* When your partner calls a personal foul, hold your position momentarily to observe unsportsmanlike acts or for altercations which occur on the court. Freeze your eyes on players and move your feet when moving to your position.
* With ball at or below the free throw line extended, move off the sideline to a position where you can referee the action on the low post.
* Maintain a position of approximately three feet above the free throw circle (upper end of coaches box) if players positioning allows. Do not stand squared up with the backboard. Always be conscious of being parallel to the sidelines so you can be quick to retreat in transition.
* Hand check is not allowed. Stop it early.
* Referee the defense in all 1-on-1 situations when refereeing on the ball.
* Stay focused on the responsibilities of the trail – and why – and your officiating will improve.
Center Position – Floor Coverage – Mechanics
* Come up the court, move with the speed of the ball. “C” has all players across the court from top of circle to top of circle (center to center during all transition plays). Referee the back 2/3 of the pack. Always hold your position momentarily after a field goal, free throw attempt or any changes of possession-observe all activity which may occur.
* Help the new lead officiate the fast break action, pass-crash, and “run over” that result from a turnover.
* Do not bail out early in transition. Look for defensive pressure before you leave. Hold your position at mid-court if there is defensive pressure in the backcourt.
* Make certain you turn your head “to the ball” when in transition from center to center. Do not turn your back to the ball. You must know the status of the ball at all times.
* If the ball comes up on the center’s side of the court, pick up the ball. You are responsible for the ball coverage.
* Make certain you do not retreat to a new position prior to a new possession being eminent.
* Have weak side rebound responsibility. Assist on perimeter rebounding.
* Help the lead with three seconds in the lane, especially if the ball is below free throw line.
* Referee with the lead any drive to the basket from any location on the court. If the play generates from C primary, referee the run over if it involves primary defender, C has first crack at it, if it involves secondary defender then let lead have first crack at it.
* Be very aggressive especially on “over the back” rebounding situation.
* Assist with travel in the post, traveling violation which may occur, on the pump fake by the player posted.
* Dual and primary responsibility on 3-point shot with the trail. Dual responsibility is the lane area extended.
* Should not rotate to the trail too quickly and lose an angle on the play you are officiating. Rotate when you feel comfortable but be aware that if there is a steal you have to get to the opposite baseline.
* Referee opposite side of lane on free throws until ball is released, then release and pick up players on the lane spaces closest to you.
* Officiate your primary, referee the defense, trust your partner, be a good partner. At critical times in the game, such as end of game, etc. leave your primary and make the call on obvious fouls and violations that everyone in the arena sees.
* Extend your coverage to the second lane line when inappropriate contact requires a call and none has come forth from the strong-side official.
* Position on the court in front court should be three feet on either side of the free throw line extended on the sideline. Continue to work hard to gain and maintain the best “visual angle” to referee through your primary and have as many players in your field of vision as possible. Avoid being straight lined whether you have to move up or down a step or two. If needed, move high and on-to-the court to see both the offense and defensive player. (Think like a trail).
* When administering a throw in “sweep the floor” check the players, benches, table, your partners and both clocks.
* Be ready to assist the lead on out-of-bounds calls on your side of the baseline.
* Primary and secondary responsibility for basket interference and goaltending, especially when the ball is shot from the strong side.
* Assist the “lead to trail” official if any pressure is applied by the defense. Referee in the backcourt on all defensive pressure play involving 3 or more players. Go to your normal position when the pressure is off.
* Watch for these types of calls: (1) Offensive “picks” on the baseline (2) Illegal screens set on out-of-bounds plays (3) Holding cutters, hand checking off the ball (4) Illegal screens.
* Be especially aware of illegal contact on plays coming across the “key” area (junction of free throw line and lane line).
* Primary responsibility for “score-no-score”. Do not guess. May need assistance on any last second shot of a half or over-time.
* Be aware of the amount of time left on the game clock and the 35-second clock. This is a necessity. You must make yourself conscious of both clocks at all times. Check the clocks on every whistle.
* Be aware of substitution (subs) at the table.
* On all personal fouls, which are called by your partner(s), hold your position momentarily to observe unsportsmanlike acts or for altercations which occur on strong side of the court. Freeze your eyes on players, do not retrieve the ball, it will come to you.
* When moving on a switch, continue to freeze your eyes on players, but move your feet.
* Hand checking is not allowed. Stop it early.
* During the altercation which occurs on the strong side of the court, hold your position and observe the entire sequence of events.
* Referee the defense in all 1-on-1 situations when refereeing on the ball.
* As you enter front court in transition, “C” to “C”, look for the best possible lane of vision to officiate. Stop and officiate the play. When the ball and players move, adjust your position. Referee feet up on plays in the lane. Adjust your position on curls, pick and roll, same lane line drive, cross screens, double stacks on lane and high post offense.
* Stay focused on the responsibilities of the center – and why -and your officiating will improve.
Lead Position – Floor Coverage — Mechanics
* On jump balls at the center circle and on fast breaks you can assist on 3-point field goal attempts for a couple of seconds.
* When going from trail to lead always run looking back over your shoulder. Never turn your back on the play. Never back pedal. Allow play to come toward you. You are responsible for the players leading the pack in transition. If pressure is applied in the backcourt, the center must assist the new trail, stop near the tip of the circle in front court and assist with any action.
* When the ball is in your side of the court, position yourself on the court three feet off baseline, slightly turned toward the inside, halfway between near lane and the 3-point line. Do not stand squared up with the baseline, always away from the center official.
* See the entire court as you wait for the play to come from backcourt to front court.
* Move one or two steps left or right to maintain the best “visual angle” to referee your primary and have as many players in your field of vision as possible. Move on the baseline to maintain an open look on post play that involves curls, post jump shots and assist trail with 3 point attempts in the corner.
* When the ball is in the middle third of the court the lead needs to be in a “closed down position” on or near the near lane line, ready to rotate when the ball and players dictate closing down on all drives to the basket.
* Do not start rotation until ball, players and officials cross the division line unless a competitive situation (ball under pressure or trapped) develops near division line on “C” side.
* When the ball is at the free throw lane line extended nearest the official in the “center” position, he should rotate. (Rotation should be a brisk walk or jog).
* Have strong side rebound responsibility.
* Do not guess on over-the-back rebound situations; trust your partner(s).
* Lead has 35-second responsibility when the ball is above the free-throw line.
* If a play is not in your primary, trust your partner(s), but be a good partner. At critical times in the game, such as end of game, etc., leave your primary and make the call on obvious fouls and violations that everyone in the arena sees.
* When in-bounding the ball, “sweep the floor”. Check table, benches, players, partners and the clocks. Check the clocks on every whistle.
* Give up the ball when it leaves your primary.
* Cover opposite lane line responsibility on free throws until ball is released, then release and cover players on your side. Position is three feet off the floor and three feet wide.
* Make sure if the ball goes out of bounds on the baseline opposite, you can look for help from the center.
* Assist on 3-point field goal attempts near the baseline on your side of the court – do not guess.
* On a drive to the basket, suck on the whistle and allow the play to develop.
* Referee from an outside-in position whenever possible. Exception – when ball is in far corner of the court.
* When rotating on the baseline, be aware of the “competitive match-ups” in your new primary, but do not totally forget a “competitive match-up” in the area you just left.
* Referee off the ball when the ball is above the free throw line extended.
* On all personal fouls which are called by your partner(s), hold your position momentarily to observe any unsportsmanlike acts or any altercations which occur on the court. Freeze your eyes on all the players. (Do not chase the ball).
* Be aware of the shot clock. If it is about to expire, hold your position as the offense will aggressively look for a shot.
* Do not leave the baseline too quickly in transitions. Look for and recognize when there will be defensive pressure.
* Always look for a reason to rotate. (Rotation puts us in the best position to referee) the speed needed to arrive on time to the new strong side is most important. Always be ready to move very quickly.
* Rotate on passes and not on catches. Always referee while rotating. Any time the ball is passed or dribbled into “C” primary and it remains for a count of one, it is an indication to immediately rotate.
* Do not acquire a position directly under the basket and referee – referee from a closed down position. To get an open look for plays in the lane and on drives to the basket, it may be necessary to step in the lane.
* Anticipate the play by refereeing the defense and thinking like the offense and this will help you rotate and be in position to accept plays.
* When officiating the block charge: If the play generates from C side and the primary defender takes the contact the let C have first crack at the Blk/Chg call. On the same play if the secondary defender slides over then the L has the first crack at the blk/chg. Plays coming down the lane that result in run over, blk/chg situations, L referee the defense and have a whistle. T and C should be blowing and holding if they have a whistle.
* Do not let the post play get rough. Call the first foul. Keep the pivot play clean and under control. Aggressive play is permitted, but rough and/or dirty play is not. Referee the guideline in your rule book.
* Referee the defense in all 1-on-1 situations when refereeing on the ball.
* Stay with the defensive player when the ball is released on a try for goal.
* Stay focused on the responsibilities of the Lead – and why – and your officiating will improve.